The mask has been modified into an okina style mask w/movable jaw; albeit, the character is a "Ko Jo" (Old Man). From the collection of Dr.Charles Smith, University of Washington; Formerly in the Prince Tokugawa Collection. Evidence of wearing and noticeable thick patina. Ergonomic, right sized to be worn.
Notable rubbing where strings once attached. "Gofun" or traditional Japanese oyster shell based glue used throughout to smooth the wood. The Kojo, or "old man, " mask seen here, which represents the character of a small, wizened old man, usually designates a fisherman or a woodcutter. The mask, embodying dignity and divinity, foreshadows the old man's appearance in the second part of the traditional NOH plays. Traditional, natural pigment base paints.
A rare and fine quality museum piece that should be revered a national treasure. Is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the. When Japan was under the rule of the.
And the country's 300 regional. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order. Foreign policies, a stable population, "no more wars", and popular enjoyment of arts and culture. The shogunate was officially established in. On March 24, 1603, by.The period came to an end with the. On May 3, 1868, after the. Took place from the time of the Kamakura shogunate. Which existed with the Tenno. S court, to the Tokugawa. Became the unchallenged rulers in what historian Edwin O.
Instrumental in the rise of the new bakufu. The main beneficiary of the achievements of Oda Nobunaga. Already a powerful daimyo, Ieyasu profited by his transfer to the rich Kanto.
He maintained two million koku. Of land, a new headquarters at Edo.A strategically situated castle town the future Tokyo. , and also had an additional two million koku of land and thirty-eight vassals. After Hideyoshi's death, Ieyasu moved quickly to seize control from the Toyotomi clan. Ieyasu's victory over the western daimyo.
At the Battle of Sekigahara. October 21, 1600, or in the Japanese calendar on the 15th day of the ninth month of the fifth year of the Keicho. Era gave him control of all Japan. He rapidly abolished numerous enemy daimyo houses, reduced others, such as that of the Toyotomi, and redistributed the spoils of war to his family and allies.Ieyasu still failed to achieve complete control of the western daimyo, but his assumption of the title of shogun. Helped consolidate the alliance system. After further strengthening his power base, Ieyasu installed his son Hidetada. The Toyotomi were still a significant threat, and Ieyasu devoted the next decade to their eradication.
In 1615, the Tokugawa army destroyed the Toyotomi stronghold at Osaka. The Tokugawa (or Edo) period brought 250 years of stability to Japan. The political system evolved into what historians call bakuhan, a combination of the terms bakufu and han. (domains) to describe the government and society of the period. In the bakuhan, the shogun had national authority and the daimyo had regional authority.
This represented a new unity in the feudal structure, which featured an increasingly large bureaucracy to administer the mixture of centralized. The Tokugawa became more powerful during their first century of rule: land redistribution gave them nearly seven million koku, control of the most important cities, and a land assessment system reaping great revenues. The feudal hierarchy was completed by the various classes of daimyo. Closest to the Tokugawa house were the shinpan.They were twenty-three daimyo on the borders of Tokugawa lands, all directly related to Ieyasu. The shinpan held mostly honorary titles and advisory posts in the bakufu. The second class of the hierarchy were the fudai. Or "house daimyo ", rewarded with lands close to the Tokugawa holdings for their faithful service.
By the 18th century, 145 fudai controlled much smaller han, the greatest assessed at 250,000 koku. Members of the fudai class staffed most of the major bakufu offices. Ninety-seven han formed the third group, the tozama.
(outside vassals), former opponents or new allies. The tozama were located mostly on the peripheries of the archipelago and collectively controlled nearly ten million koku of productive land.Because the tozama were least trusted of the daimyo, they were the most cautiously managed and generously treated, although they were excluded from central government. The Tokugawa shogunate not only consolidated their control over a reunified Japan, they also had unprecedented power over the emperor. The court, all daimyo and the religious orders. The emperor was held up as the ultimate source of political sanction for the shogun, who ostensibly was the vassal of the imperial family. The Tokugawa helped the imperial family recapture its old glory by rebuilding its palaces and granting it new lands.
To ensure a close tie between the imperial clan and the Tokugawa family, Ieyasu's granddaughter was made an imperial consort in 1619. A code of laws was established to regulate the daimyo houses.
The code encompassed private conduct, marriage, dress, types of weapons and numbers of troops allowed; required feudal lords to reside in Edo every other year the sankin-kotai. Although the daimyo were not taxed per se, they were regularly levied for contributions for military. And logistical support and for such public works projects as castles, roads, bridges and palaces. The various regulations and levies not only strengthened the Tokugawa but also depleted the wealth of the daimyo, thus weakening their threat to the central administration. The han, once military-centered domains, became mere local administrative.
The daimyo did have full administrative control over their territory and their complex systems of retainers, bureaucrats. Loyalty was exacted from religious foundations, already greatly weakened by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, through a variety of control mechanisms. Is represented in Claude Deruet. S painting of Hasekura Tsunenaga.In Rome in 1617, as a galleon with Hasekura's flag (red manji on orange background) on the top mast. Itinerary and dates of the travels of Hasekura Tsunenaga. Bird's-eye view of the Nagasaki bay, with the island Dejima. Like Hideyoshi, Ieyasu encouraged foreign trade but also was suspicious of outsiders. He wanted to make Edo a major port, but once he learned that the Europeans favored ports in Kyushu. And that China had rejected his plans for official trade, he moved to control existing trade and allowed only certain ports to handle specific kinds of commodities. The beginning of the Edo period coincides with the last decades of the Nanban trade period.
During which intense interaction with European powers, on the economic and religious plane, took place. It is at the beginning of the Edo period that Japan built its first ocean-going Western-style warships. Such as the San Juan Bautista. To the Americas and then to Europe. Japanese adventurers, such as Yamada Nagamasa.
The "Christian problem" was, in effect, a problem of controlling both the Christian daimyo in Kyushu and their trade with the Europeans. S retainers and residents of Tokugawa lands had been ordered to forswear Christianity. More restrictions came in 1616 (the restriction of foreign trade to Nagasaki and Hirado, an island northwest of Kyushu), 1622 (the execution of 120 missionaries and converts), 1624 (the expulsion of the Spanish), and 1629 (the execution of thousands of Christians). Finally, the Closed Country Edict of 1635. Prohibited any Japanese from traveling outside Japan or, if someone left, from ever returning.In 1636, the Dutch were restricted to Dejima. And thus, not true Japanese soil-in Nagasaki's harbor. The shogunate perceived Christianity to be an extremely destabilizing factor, and so decided to target it. Soon thereafter, the Portuguese were permanently expelled, members of the Portuguese diplomatic mission were executed, all subjects were ordered to register at a Buddhist or Shinto temple, and the Dutch and Chinese were restricted, respectively, to Dejima and to a special quarter in Nagasaki. Besides small trade of some outer daimyo with Korea.
To the southwest of Japan's main islands, by 1641, foreign contacts were limited by the policy of sakoku. The last Jesuit was either killed or reconverted by 1644. And by the 1660s, Christianity was almost completely eradicated, and its external political, economic, and religious influence on Japan became quite limited. Only China, the Dutch East India Company. And for a short period, the English, enjoyed the right to visit Japan during this period, for commercial purposes only, and they were restricted to the Dejima.
Other Europeans who landed on Japanese shores were put to death without trial. The house of the merchant Fukagawa Edo Museum. Social classes during the Edo period Tokugawa shogunate. During the Tokugawa period, the social order, based on inherited position rather than personal merits, was rigid and highly formalized. At the top were the emperor and court nobles kuge., together with the shogun and daimyo. Below them the population was divided into four classes. In a system known as mibunsei??? : the samurai on top (about 5% of the population) and the peasants (more than 80% of the population) on the second level. Below the peasants were the craftsmen, and even below them, on the fourth level, were the merchants. Only the peasants lived in the rural areas. Samurai, craftsmen and merchants lived in the cities. That were built around daimyo castles. Each restricted to their own quarter. Edo society had an elaborate social structure, in which every family knew its place and level of prestige. At the top were the Emperor and the court nobility, invincible in prestige but weak in power. And layers of feudal lords whose rank was indicated by their closeness to the Tokugawa. The daimyo comprised about 250 local lords of local "han" with annual outputs of 50,000 or more bushels of rice. The upper strata was much given to elaborate and expensive rituals, including elegant architecture, landscaped gardens, Noh drama, patronage of the arts, and the tea ceremony. Then came the 400,000 warriors, called samurai. , in numerous grades and degrees. A few upper samurai were eligible for high office; most were foot soldiers (ashigaru). The samurai were affiliated with senior lords in a well-established chain of command. The shogun had 17,000 samurai retainers; the daimyo each had hundreds. Most lived in modest homes near their lord's headquarters, and lived off of hereditary rights and stipends. Together these high status groups comprised Japan's ruling class making up about 6% of the total population.
After a long period of inner conflict, the first goal of the newly established Tokugawa government was to pacify the country. It created a balance of power that remained (fairly) stable for the next 250 years, influenced by Confucian.
Lost their direct possession of the land: the daimyo took over their land. The samurai had a choice: give up their sword and become peasants, or move to the city of their feudal lord and become a paid retainer.
Only a few land samurai remained in the border provinces of the north, or as direct vassals of the shogun, the 5,000 so-called hatamoto. The daimyo were put under tight control of the shogunate. Their families had to reside in Edo; the daimyo themselves had to reside in Edo for one year and in their province han.This system was called sankin-kotai. The family was the smallest legal entity, and the maintenance of family status and privileges was of great importance at all levels of society. The individual had no separate legal rights. The 1711 Gotoke reijo was compiled from over 600 statutes promulgated between 1597 and 1696. Outside the four classes were the so-called eta. And hinin, those whose professions broke the taboos of Buddhism. Eta were butchers, tanners and undertakers. Hinin served as town guards, street cleaners, and executioners. Other outsiders included the beggars, entertainers, and prostitutes. The word eta literally translates to "filthy" and hinin to "non-humans", a thorough reflection of the attitude held by other classes that the eta and hinin were not even people.
Hinin were only allowed inside a special quarter of the city. Other persecution of the hinin included disallowing them from wearing robes longer than knee-length and the wearing of hats.Sometimes eta villages were not even printed on official maps. A sub-class of hinin who were born into their social class had no option of mobility to a different social class whereas the other class of hinin who had lost their previous class status could be reinstated in Japanese society. In the 19th century the umbrella term burakumin was coined to name the eta and hinin because both classes were forced to live in separate village neighborhoods. The eta, hinin and burakumin classes were officially abolished in 1871. However, their cultural and societal impact, including some forms of discrimination, continues into modern times.
Five albumen prints joined to form a panorama. Scaled pocket plan of Edo. The Edo period bequeathed a vital commercial sector to be in burgeoning urban centers, a relatively well-educated elite, a sophisticated government bureaucracy, productive agriculture, a closely unified nation with highly developed financial and marketing systems, and a national infrastructure of roads. Economic development during the Tokugawa period included urbanization.
The construction trades flourished, along with banking facilities and merchant associations. Authorities oversaw the rising agricultural production and the spread of rural handicrafts. A set of three ukiyo-e. By the mid-18th century, Edo had a population of more than one million, likely the biggest city in the world at the time. Each had more than 400,000 inhabitants.Osaka and Kyoto became busy trading and handicraft production centers, while Edo was the center for the supply of food and essential urban consumer goods. Around the year 1700, Japan was perhaps the most urbanized country in the world, at a rate of around 10-12%. Half of that figure would be samurai, while the other half, consisting of merchants and artisans, would be known as chonin. In the first part of the Edo period, Japan experienced rapid demographic growth, before leveling off at around 30 million. Between the 1720s and 1820s, Japan had almost zero population growth. Often attributed to lower birth rates in response to widespread famine, but some historians have presented different theories, such as a high rate of infanticide artificially controlling population.
At around 1721, the population of Japan was close to 30 million and the figure was only around 32 million around the Meiji Restoration around 150 years later. At the same time, Japan was perhaps the most urbanized country in the world at around the year 1700, at a rate of around 10-12%. From 1721, there were regular national surveys of the population until the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
In addition, regional surveys, as well as religious records initially compiled to eradicate Christianity, also provide valuable demographic data. The Tokugawa era brought peace, and that brought prosperity to a nation of 31 million, 80% of them rice farmers.Rice production increased steadily, but population remained stable. Rice paddies grew from 1.6 million cho in 1600 to 3 million by 1720. Improved technology helped farmers control the all-important flow of water to their paddies. The daimyos operated several hundred castle towns, which became loci of domestic trade. The system of sankin kotai meant that daimyos and their families often resided in Edo or travelled back to their domains, giving demand to an enormous consumer market in Edo and trade throughout the country. Samurai and daimyos, after prolonged peace, are accustomed to more elaborate lifestyles. To keep up with growing expenditures, the bakufu and daimyos often encouraged commercial crops and artifacts within their domains, from textiles to tea. The concentration of wealth also led to the development of financial markets. As the shogunate only allowed daimyos to sell surplus rice in Edo and Osaka, large-scale rice markets developed there.
Each daimyo also had a capital city, located near the one castle they were allowed to maintain. In the cities and towns, guilds of merchants and artisans met the growing demand for goods and services. The merchants benefited enormously, especially those with official patronage. Of the shogunate focused the virtues of frugality and hard work; it had a rigid class system, which emphasized agriculture and despised commerce and merchants.
A century after the Shogunate's establishment, problems began to emerge. The wealth of merchants gave them a degree of prestige and even power over the daimyos. The nation had to deal somehow with samurai impoverishment and treasury deficits. The financial troubles of the samurai undermined their loyalties to the system, and the empty treasury threatened the whole system of government.
One solution was reactionary-cutting samurai salaries and prohibiting spending for luxuries. Other solutions were modernizing, with the goal of increasing agrarian productivity. The eighth Tokugawa shogun, Yoshimune.
Others shoguns debased the coinage to pay debts, which caused inflation. Overall, while commerce (domestic and international) was vibrant and sophisticated financial services had developed in the Edo period, the shogunate remained ideologically focused on honest agricultural work as the basis of society and never sought to develop a mercantile or capitalistic country. By 1800, the commercialization of the economy grew rapidly, bringing more and more remote villages into the national economy.There is some evidence that as merchants gain greater political influence, the rigid class division between samurai and merchants were beginning to break down towards to end of the Edo period. A few domains, notably Chosu and Satsuma, used innovative methods to restore their finances, but most sunk further into debt. Was the base of the economy. About 80% of the people were rice farmers. Rice production increased steadily, but population remained stable, so prosperity increased.
Improved technology helped farmers control the all-important flow of irrigation to their paddies. The daimyo operated several hundred castle towns, which became loci of domestic trade. Large-scale rice markets developed, centered on Edo and Osaka. The merchants, while low in status, prospered, especially those with official patronage.
To sell rice that was not even harvested yet. These contracts were similar to modern futures trading. It was during the Edo period that Japan developed an advanced forest management. Increased demand for timber resources for construction, shipbuilding and fuel had led to widespread deforestation, which resulted in forest fires, floods and soil erosion. In response the shogun, beginning around 1666, instituted a policy to reduce logging and increase the planting of trees.
The policy mandated that only the shogun and daimyo could authorize the use of wood. By the 18th century, Japan had developed detailed scientific knowledge about silviculture. The first shogun Ieyasu set up Confucian academies in his shinpan.Domains and other daimyos followed suit in their own domains, establishing what's known as han schools. Within a generation, almost all samurai were literate, as their careers often required knowledge of literary arts. These academies were staffed mostly with other samurais, along with some buddhist and shinto clergymen who were also learned in Neo-Confucianism. And the works of Zhu Xi. (Chinese characters), the Confucian classics, calligraphy, basic arithmetics, and etiquette. The samurai also learned various martial arts and military skills in schools. (urban merchants and artisans) patronized neighborhood schools called terakoya.
Despite being located in temples, the terakoya curriculum consisted of basic literacy and arithmetic, instead of literary arts or philosophy. High rates of urban literacy in Edo Japan contributed to the prevalence of novels and other literary forms. In urban areas, children are often taught by masterless samurai, while in rural areas priests from Buddhist temples or Shinto shrines often did the teaching.Unlike in the cities, in rural Japan, only children of prominent farmers would receive education. In Edo, the shogunate set up several schools under its direct patronage, the most important being the neo-Confucian Shoheiko. Acting as a de facto elite school for its bureaucracy but also creating a network of alumni from the whole country. Besides Shoheiko, other important directly-run schools at the end of the shogunate included the Wagakukodansho.
"Institute of Lectures of Japanese classics", specialized in Japanese domestic history and literature, influencing the rise of kokugaku. "Institute of medecine", focusing on Chinese medicine. One estimate of literacy in Edo Japan suggest that up to a third of males could read, along with a sixth of women. Another estimate states that 40% of men and 10% of women by the end of the Edo period were literate. Some historians partially credited Japan's high literacy rates for its fast development after the Meiji Restoration.
Japan's first treatise on Western anatomy. Was the major intellectual development of the Tokugawa period.
Studies had long been kept active in Japan by Buddhist. Clerics, but during the Tokugawa period, Confucianism emerged from Buddhist religious control. This system of thought increased attention to a secular view of man and society. And historical perspective of neo-Confucian doctrine appealed to the official class. By the mid-17th century, neo-Confucianism was Japan's dominant legal philosophy and contributed directly to the development of the kokugaku.
(national learning) school of thought. Advanced studies and growing applications of neo-Confucianism contributed to the transition of the social and political order from feudal norms to class- and large-group-oriented practices. The rule of the people or Confucian man was gradually replaced by the rule of law. New laws were developed, and new administrative devices were instituted.
A new theory of government and a new vision of society emerged as a means of justifying more comprehensive governance by the bakufu. Each person had a distinct place in society and was expected to work to fulfill his or her mission in life. The people were to be ruled with benevolence by those whose assigned duty it was to rule. Government was all-powerful but responsible and humane.
Although the class system was influenced by neo-Confucianism, it was not identical to it. Whereas soldiers and clergy were at the bottom of the hierarchy in the Chinese model, in Japan, some members of these classes constituted the ruling elite.
Class adhered to bushi traditions with a renewed interest in Japanese history and in cultivation of the ways of Confucian scholar-administrators. Another special way of life- chonindo -also emerged. ("the way of the townspeople") was a distinct culture that arose in cities such as Osaka. It encouraged aspiration to bushido qualities-diligence, honesty, honor, loyalty, and frugality-while blending Shinto. Study of mathematics, astronomy, cartography, engineering, and medicine were also encouraged.Emphasis was placed on quality of workmanship, especially in the arts. Were both still important in Tokugawa Japan. Provided standards of social behavior. Although Buddhism was not as politically powerful as it had been in the past, Buddhism continued to be espoused by the upper classes. Proscriptions against Christianity benefited Buddhism in 1640 when the bakufu ordered everyone to register at a temple. The rigid separation of Tokugawa society into han, villages, wards, and households helped reaffirm local Shinto attachments. Shinto provided spiritual support to the political order and was an important tie between the individual and the community. Shinto also helped preserve a sense of national identity. Eventually assumed an intellectual form as shaped by neo-Confucian rationalism and materialism.
The kokugaku movement emerged from the interactions of these two belief systems. Kokugaku contributed to the emperor-centered nationalism of modern Japan and the revival of Shinto as a national creed in the 18th and 19th centuries. Were all studied anew in the search for the Japanese spirit. Some purists in the kokugaku movement, such as Motoori Norinaga.
Even criticized the Confucian and Buddhist influences-in effect, foreign influences-for contaminating Japan's ancient ways. Japan was the land of the kami. And, as such, had a special destiny. During the period, Japan studied Western sciences and techniques called rangaku. "Dutch studies" through the information and books received through the Dutch traders in Dejima.The main areas that were studied included geography, medicine, natural sciences, astronomy, art, languages, physical sciences such as the study of electrical phenomena, and mechanical sciences as exemplified by the development of Japanese clockwatches, or wadokei. Red and White Plum Blossoms. In the field of art, the Rinpa school. The paintings and crafts of the Rinpa school are characterized by highly decorative and showy designs using gold and silver leaves, bold compositions with simplified objects to be drawn, repeated patterns, and a playful spirit.
Important figures in the Rinpa school include Hon'ami Koetsu. Other than the Rinpa school, Maruyama Okyo.Are famous for their realistic painting techniques. They produced their works under the patronage of wealthy merchants newly emerging from the economic development of this period. The painters of the Kano school. Drew pictures on the walls and fusumas.
And temples with the support of powerful people. The Great Wave off Kanagawa. For the first time, urban populations had the means and leisure time to support a new mass culture.Their search for enjoyment became known as ukiyo. (the floating world), an ideal world of fashion, popular entertainment, and the discovery of aesthetic qualities in objects and actions of everyday life. This increasing interest in pursuing recreational activities helped to develop an array of new industries, many of which could be found in an area known as Yoshiwara. The district was known for being the center of Edo's developing sense of elegance and refinement.
Established in 1617 as the city's shogunate-sanctioned prostitution district, it kept this designation about 250 years. Yoshiwara was home to mostly women who, due to unfortunate circumstances, found themselves working in this secluded environment. Ukiyo-e based on kabuki actors became popular. In the popular kabuki play Shibaraku. (puppet theater), poetry, a rich literature, and art, exemplified by beautiful woodblock prints known as ukiyo-e.
, were all part of this flowering of culture. Literature also flourished with the talented examples of the playwright Chikamatsu Monzaemon. Is a genre of painting and printmaking that developed in the late 17th century, at first depicting the entertainments of the pleasure districts. Of Edo, such as courtesans and kabuki.Produced the first full-colour nishiki-e. Prints in 1765, a form that has become synonymous to most with ukiyo-e.
The genre reached a peak in technique towards the end of the century with the works of such artists as Kiyonaga. As the Edo period came to an end a great diversity of genres proliferated: warriors, nature, folklore, and the landscapes of Hokusai. The genre declined throughout the rest of the century in the face of modernization that saw ukiyo-e as both old-fashioned and laborious to produce compared to Western technologies. Ukiyo-e was a primary part of the wave of Japonisme. That swept Western art in the late 19th century.The Edo period was characterized by an unprecedented series of economic developments (despite termination of contact with the outside world) and cultural maturation, especially in terms of theater, music, and other entertainment. For example, a poetic meter for music called kinsei kouta-cho was invented during this time.
And is still used today in folk songs. Music and theater were influenced by the social gap between the noble and commoner classes, and different arts became more defined as this gap widened. Several different types of kabuki. Were only available at a certain time of year, while some companies only performed for nobles. Fashion trends, satirization of local news stories, and advertisements were often part of kabuki theater, as well.
The most popular sport was sumo. Ukiyo-e depicting Sushi, by Hiroshige. Eating out has become popular due to urbanization. Particularly popular among ordinary people were stalls serving fast food.Have also opened to serve high-class food. Gardening were also popular pastimes for the people of the time. Especially in Edo, residences of daimyo. (feudal lords) of each domain were gathered, and many gardeners existed to manage these gardens, which led to the development of horticultural techniques.
Were especially popular, and bonsai. Using deep pots became popular. For example, Matsudaira Sadatomo produced 300 varieties of iris and published a technical book. A boarding place for a ferry on the Miya River. Which is crowded with people visiting Ise Grand Shrine.Traveling became popular among people because of the improvement of roads and post towns. The main destinations were famous temples and Shinto shrines.
Around the country, and eating and drinking at the inns and prostitution were one of the main attractions. And what people admired most was the visit to Ise Grand Shrine. And the summit of Mt. Which are considered the most sacred places in Japan.
The Ise Grand Shrine in particular has been visited by an enormous number of visitors, and historical documents record that 3.62 million people visited the shrine in 50 days in 1625 and 1.18 million people visited it in three days in 1829 when the grand festival held every 20 years (Shikinen Sengu) was held. It was a once-in-a-lifetime event for people living in remote areas, so they set up a joint fund for each village, saved their travel expenses, and went on a group trip. Local residents of Ise Grand Shrine and Mt.Outer kimono for a young woman uchikake. Somada school, 19th century, Tokyo National Museum. Clothing acquired a wide variety of designs and decorative techniques, especially for kimono. The main consumers of kimono were the samurai.
Who used lavish clothing and other material luxuries to signal their place at the top of the social order. The textile industry grew and used increasingly sophisticated methods of weaving, dyeing. Over this period, women adopted brighter colours and bolder designs, whereas women's and men's kimono had been very similar.
The rise of a merchant class. Fuelled more demand for elaborate costumes. While ordinary kimono would usually be created by women at home, luxurious silk kimono were designed and created by specialist artists who were usually men. A kind of kimono specific to the military elite is the goshodoki or "palace court style", which would be worn in the residence of a military leader a Shogun.
These would have landscape scenes, among which there are other motifs usually referencing classic literature. Samurai men would dress with a more understated design with geometrical designs concentrated around the waist. The yogi, or sleeping kimono, is a thickly wadded form of wearable bedding, usually with simple designs.
A style called tsuma moyo had rich decoration from the waist down only, and family emblems on the neck and shoulders. These would be worn by women of the merchant class. The kimono of merchant-class women were more subdued than those of the samurai, but still with bold colours and designs representing nature. Red was a popular colour for wealthy women, partly because of its cultural association with youth and passion, and partly because the dye - derived from safflower. Was very expensive, so a bright red garment was an ostentatious display of wealth.Indian fabrics, brought to Japan by Dutch. Importers, were received with enthusiasm and found many uses.
Japanese designers started printing designs that were influenced by the Indian patterns. Some garments used fabric imported from Britain or France.
Ownership of these exotic textiles signified wealth and taste, but they were worn as undergarments where the designs would not be seen. Became popular as accessories among men. Originally, inro was a portable case to put a seal or medicine, and netsuke was a fastener attached to the case, and both were practical tools. However, from the middle of the Edo period, products with high artistic value appeared and became popular as male accessories. At the end of the Edo period, the artistic value of inro further increased and it came to be regarded as an art collection.6 Battery, one of the original Edo-era battery islands. One of the cannons of Odaiba, now at the Yasukuni Shrine. 80-pound bronze, bore: 250mm, length: 3830mm. The end of this period is specifically called the late Tokugawa shogunate. The cause for the end of this period is controversial but is recounted as the forcing of Japan's opening to the world by Commodore Matthew Perry.
Fired weapons from Edo Bay. Were created to block the range of the armada, and this land remains in what is presently called the Odaiba. The Tokugawa did not eventually collapse simply because of intrinsic failures.
Foreign intrusions helped to precipitate a complex political struggle between the bakufu. And a coalition of its critics.
The continuity of the anti- bakufu movement in the mid-19th century would finally bring down the Tokugawa. Historians consider that a major contributing factor to the decline of the Tokugawa was "poor management of the central government by the shogun, which caused the social classes in Japan to fall apart". From the outset, the Tokugawa attempted to restrict families' accumulation of wealth and fostered a "back to the soil" policy, in which the farmer, the ultimate producer, was the ideal person in society. The standard of living for urban and rural dwellers alike grew significantly during the Tokugawa period. Better means of crop production, transport, housing, food, and entertainment were all available, as was more leisure time, at least for urban dwellers.The literacy rate was high for a preindustrial society (by some estimates the literacy rate in the city of Edo was 80 percent), and cultural values were redefined and widely imparted throughout the samurai. Despite the reappearance of guilds. Although government heavily restricted the merchants and viewed them as unproductive and usurious members of society, the samurai, who gradually became separated from their rural ties, depended greatly on the merchants and artisans for consumer goods, artistic interests, and loans. In this way, a subtle subversion of the warrior class by the chonin took place. A struggle arose in the face of political limitations that the shogun imposed on the entrepreneurial class.
The government ideal of an agrarian society. Failed to square with the reality of commercial distribution. A huge government bureaucracy had evolved, which now stagnated because of its discrepancy with a new and evolving social order. Compounding the situation, the population increased significantly during the first half of the Tokugawa period.
Although the magnitude and growth rates are uncertain, there were at least 26 million commoners and about four million members of samurai families and their attendants when the first nationwide census was taken in 1721. Drought, followed by crop shortages and starvation, resulted in twenty great famines between 1675 and 1837. During the Tokugawa period, there were 154 famines, of which 21 were widespread and serious.Newly landless families became tenant farmers, while the displaced rural poor moved into the cities. As the fortunes of previously well-to-do families declined, others moved in to accumulate land, and a new, wealthy farming class emerged. Those people who benefited were able to diversify production and to hire laborers, while others were left discontented. Many samurai fell on hard times and were forced into handicraft production and wage jobs for merchants. Although Japan was able to acquire and refine a wide variety of scientific knowledge, the rapid industrialization of the West during the 18th century created a material gap in terms of technologies and armament between Japan and the West, forcing it to abandon its policy of seclusion and contributing to the end of the Tokugawa regime. Western intrusions were on the increase in the early 19th century. Russian warships and traders encroached on Karafuto. Under Russian and Soviet control and on the Kuril Islands.
The southernmost of which are considered by the Japanese as the northern islands of Hokkaido. Were seen in Japanese waters with increasing frequency in the 1810s and 1820s. Although the Japanese made some minor concessions and allowed some landings, they largely attempted to keep all foreigners out, sometimes using force. Became crucial not only in understanding the foreign barbarians.
But also in using the knowledge gained from the West to fend them off. By the 1830s, there was a general sense of crisis. Hit hard, and unrest led to a peasant uprising against officials and merchants in Osaka in 1837. Although it lasted only a day, the uprising made a dramatic impression. Remedies came in the form of traditional solutions that sought to reform moral decay rather than address institutional problems.S advisers pushed for a return to the martial spirit, more restrictions on foreign trade and contacts, suppression of rangaku, censorship of literature, and elimination of "luxury" in the government and samurai class. Others sought the overthrow of the Tokugawa and espoused the political doctrine of sonno joi. (revere the emperor, expel the barbarians), which called for unity under imperial rule and opposed foreign intrusions. The bakufu persevered for the time being amidst growing concerns over Western successes in establishing colonial enclaves in China following the First Opium War. More reforms were ordered, especially in the economic sector, to strengthen Japan against the Western threat.
Japan turned down a demand from the United States, which was greatly expanding its own presence in the Asia-Pacific region, to establish diplomatic. Relations when Commodore James Biddle. With two warships in July 1846. This item is in the category "Antiques\Asian Antiques\Japan\Masks". The seller is "cosmic_goods" and is located in this country: US.
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